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I nuovi manager

La crisi della carriera tradizionale nasce con la fine del modello fordista anni 80. Le aziende preferiscono figure flessibili che possano operare in differenti aree professionali.

La carriera è diventata un lusso per pochi dice Rita Querzè nella sua inchiesta su Sette. Una scommessa ad altissimo rischio diventata gradualmente sempre più vera a partire dagli Anni 90. Oggi si è aggiunta una novità. La crisi innescata dalla pandemia ha accelerato la digitalizzazione e lo smart working. Due processi che stanno mandando definitivamente in soffitta l’idea di carriera come l’avevamo concepita.
Quanto sta avvenendo è un pugno nello stomaco soprattutto per la classe dei cinquantenni cresciuti negli anni 80, irriducibili che si sono aggrappati al mito della carriera, oggi in crisi, perdendo quanto “investito” sotto forma di dedizione, impegno ed energie.
La prima cosa che hanno fatto le aziende, travolte dallo tsunami della pandemia, è stato proprio chiamare le prime linee dei dirigenti e “convincerli” ad auto-tagliarsi lo stipendio del 20-30 per cento in un colpo solo.
Nessuna carriera può dirsi tale se non certificata da adeguata retribuzione.
E ora, da dove ripartire per dare un senso al proprio impegno nel lavoro? E quale tipo di messaggio dare ai figli che in questa fase di straordinario cambiamento stanno cercando la loro strada?
Si tratta di domande cruciali, nessuno può permettersi di sbagliare la risposta.
Per cominciare vale la pena fare un piccolo passo indietro per capire come siamo arrivati fino a qui. In realtà pochi se ne sono accorti ma, proprio nel momento della sua massima popolarità, gli anni 80, l’idea di carriera era già entrata in crisi. I percorsi lineari di crescita sono possibili nelle organizzazioni fordiste, con una struttura simile a una piramide.
Qui, più persone “comandi” sotto di te, più sei importante. Ma un lento processo di decostruzione del fordismo è iniziato già sul finire degli Anni 70. A innescarlo l’eccessiva rigidità di questo modello a confronto con la lean production, la “produzione snella” inventata dai giapponesi, insieme con le tensioni interne create dalle rivendicazioni dal basso e agli choc esterni come la crisi petrolifera.
Fatto sta che le aziende hanno cominciato a esternalizzare tutte le funzioni possibili. Il numero di grandi imprese, luoghi d’elezione per lo sviluppo delle carriere, si è ridotto. E non è un caso, quindi, che negli Anni 90 la figura a cui tendere sul lavoro sia passata dal manager all’imprenditore.
Venute meno le grandi imprese, la struttura portante del nostro sistema produttivo sono diventate le medie imprese, che spesso però fanno fare all’esterno gran parte della produzione. Inevitabile che qui le possibilità di carriera si riducano. Nel contesto italiano, poi, la struttura produttiva è particolarmente frammentata.
Nelle piccole aziende in pratica l’idea di carriera non è mai esistita.
Sempre negli anni 80 la specializzazione ha cominciato a non bastare più, si è capita l’importanza delle competenze trasversali per cui le aziende hanno cominciato a proporre ai dipendenti il passaggio da una funzione all’altra: dalla produzione, al marketing, dal marketing al commerciale. In pratica i dipendenti hanno cominciato a muoversi nelle organizzazioni in orizzontale invece che in verticale, il che significa, spesso, ricominciare tutto da capo.
Dagli anni 90, poi, l’Italia ha vissuto una lunga fase di stagnazione. Ma la stagnazione non è certo il contesto ideale per lo sviluppo delle carriere. Tantomeno la crisi che si è sviluppata a partire di primi anni Duemila.
È esattamente a questo punto della storia che è entrata in scena la pandemia.
Con i dirigenti che negli ultimi undici anni – dal 2008 al 2019 – sono già diminuiti del 3 per cento, per oltre la metà concentrati tra Lombardia (50 mila) e Lazio (18 mila), segno che quel che resta delle prospettive di crescita professionale è concentrato tra Roma e Milano. Oramai è definitivamente saltato l’ ex novo patto fiduciario tra l’azienda e il suo dipendente. È come se parte del rischio legato all’attività d’impresa si fosse trasferito sul dipendente stesso. Trasformandolo in una figura a metà tra il dipendente vecchia maniera e l’autonomo. Sempre pronto (o talvolta costretto) a cambiare “padrone” a seconda delle pulsioni del mercato.
In prospettiva lo smart working non farà che accelerare questo processo. La natura di questo modo di lavorare, infatti, non sta tanto nel trovarsi a casa invece che in azienda ma nella possibilità che viene data al dipendente di autogestirsi e auto-organizzarsi in funzione di obiettivi concordati.
Il risultato è che da una parte assistiamo a una polverizzazione del lavoro, sempre meno aggregato nello stesso luogo. Dall’altra è come se ogni dipendente diventasse un po’ capo di sé stesso. E allora il manager che cosa ci sta a fare? Il manager deve cambiare, abbandonare il ruolo di chi vigila su sottoposti a portata di sguardo e passare all’organizzazione, coordinamento e motivazione di persone che stanno lavorando a distanza.
A stravolgere definitivamente il paradigma della carriera c’è anche la trasformazione epocale legata alla digitalizzazione, di cui anche lo smart working è in qualche modo un effetto.
Nella società digitale cambia completamente la filosofia del management, prima basata su ordine e fedeltà, ora su condivisione e intraprendenza.
Con il tempo sempre più i lavori semplici e ripetitivi saranno svolti dalle macchine. È come se il manager/ generale di un’azienda/esercito a un certo punto scoprisse di non avere più sotto di sé una truppa di soldati semplici ma soltanto tanti sergenti e colonnelli. La struttura delle organizzazioni non è più a piramide ma a rete. Questo non significa che i generali non servano più. Ma cambia radicalmente la loro funzione.
Chi è in ruoli di responsabilità dovrà sempre più governare la complessità. E gestire alti e bassi.
Come dire: i periodi da generale potrebbero alternarsi a quelli da colonnello. Già oggi il turnover dei dirigenti è altissimo, in media ogni anno il 12% perde la qualifica e viene rimpiazzato. In crescita anche il fenomeno del temporary management, i manager a chiamata. Questo contesto richiede stabilità e solidità personale e anche capacità di trovare da soli un senso al percorso che si sta facendo. Un passaggio tutt’altro che scontato.
C’è chi a tempo perso diventa cuoco a domicilio, trasformando un hobby in un lavoro, chi fa attività di mentoring, chi si dedica al volontariato o chi allo sport, praticato in modo iper professionale.
La complessità del nuovo mondo del lavoro è tale che servirebbe un’assunzione di responsabilità collettiva per fornire alle persone una nuova cassetta degli attrezzi. Fatta di anni sabbatici e momenti di formazione supportati, come avviene per esempio in Francia e nei Paesi del Nord Europa. Di questo sono ben consapevoli anche le stesse associazioni di categoria dei dirigenti.
La carriera non è in lockdown. Certo, ormai si fa in orizzontale, salendo e scendendo, ma alla fine ritrovandosi sempre con più esperienza e nuove competenze. Questo processo nel dopo pandemia sarà probabilmente accelerato. Avremo carriere a K come l’economia, settori e professioni che cresceranno di più e altri di meno. Acquisire esperienze e competenze serve per stare sulla diagonale della kappa ascendente.
Una prospettiva interessante e inattesa per chi ha competenze manageriali potrebbe crearsi nel pubblico impiego e, in generale, nei servizi, bisognosi di rilancio perché caratterizzati in media da una bassa produttività del lavoro.
L’età media dei nostri tre milioni di dipendenti pubblici è superiore ai 50 anni. Moltissimi andranno in pensione nei prossimi 7-8 anni. Nel 2019 è stato tolto il blocco del turnover. L’uscita in massa di ampie coorti di persone è un’eccezionale e irripetibile opportunità per rivedere i processi lavorativi e migliorare la qualità dei servizi pubblici. Di managerialità e manager c’è bisogno per la governance del Pnrr a livello pubblico, ma anche nelle tante aziende che dovranno sfruttare le opportunità offerte dai finanziamenti messi in campo dal Piano nazionale di ripresa e resilienza. La via d’uscita dall’impasse si trova come al solito guardando avanti. Con un po’ di coraggio e, se necessario, adattando le aspettative.
Tratto da una inchiesta di Rita Querzè

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