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40 regole per parlare bene l’italiano

  1. Evita le allitterazioni, anche se allettano gli allocchi.
  2. Non è che il congiuntivo va evitato, anzi, che lo si usa quando necessario.
  3. Evita le frasi fatte: è minestra riscaldata.
  4. Esprimiti siccome ti nutri.
  5. Non usare sigle commerciali & abbreviazioni etc.
  6. Ricorda (sempre) che la parentesi (anche quando pare indispensabile) interrompe il filo del discorso.
  7. Stai attento a non fare… indigestione di puntini di sospensione.
  8. Usa meno virgolette possibili: non è “fine”.
  9. Non generalizzare mai.
  10. Le parole straniere non fanno affatto bon ton.
  11. Sii avaro di citazioni. Diceva giustamente Emerson: “Odio le citazioni. Dimmi solo quello che sai tu.”
  12. I paragoni sono come le frasi fatte.
  13. Non essere ridondante; non ripetere due volte la stessa cosa; ripetere è superfluo (per ridondanza s’intende la spiegazione inutile di qualcosa che il lettore ha già capito).
  14. Solo gli stronzi usano parole volgari.
  15. Sii sempre più o meno specifico.
  16. L’iperbole è la più straordinaria delle tecniche espressive.
  17. Non fare frasi di una sola parola. Eliminale.
  18. Guardati dalle metafore troppo ardite: sono piume sulle scaglie di un serpente.
  19. Metti, le virgole, al posto giusto.
  20. Distingui tra la funzione del punto e virgola e quella dei due punti: anche se non è facile.
  21. Se non trovi l’espressione italiana adatta non ricorrere mai all’espressione dialettale: peso el tacòn del buso.
  22. Non usare metafore incongruenti anche se ti paiono “cantare”: sono come un cigno che deraglia.
  23. C’è davvero bisogno di domande retoriche?
  24. Sii conciso, cerca di condensare i tuoi pensieri nel minor numero di parole possibile, evitando frasi lunghe — o spezzate da incisi che inevitabilmente confondono il lettore poco attento — affinché il tuo discorso non contribuisca a quell’inquinamento dell’informazione che è certamente (specie quando inutilmente farcito di precisazioni inutili, o almeno non indispensabili) una delle tragedie di questo nostro tempo dominato dal potere dei media.
  25. Gli accenti non debbono essere nè scorretti nè inutili, perchè chi lo fà sbaglia.
  26. Non si apostrofa un’articolo indeterminativo prima del sostantivo maschile.
  27. Non essere enfatico! Sii parco con gli esclamativi!
  28. Neppure i peggiori fans dei barbarismi pluralizzano i termini stranieri.
  29. Scrivi in modo esatto i nomi stranieri, come Beaudelaire, Roosewelt, Niezsche, e simili.
  30. Nomina direttamente autori e personaggi di cui parli, senza perifrasi. Così faceva il maggior scrittore lombardo del XIX secolo, l’autore del 5 maggio.
  31. All’inizio del discorso usa la captatio benevolentiae, per ingraziarti il lettore (ma forse siete così stupidi da non capire neppure quello che vi sto dicendo).
  32. Cura puntiliosamente l’ortograffia.
  33. Inutile dirti quanto sono stucchevoli le preterizioni.
  34. Non andare troppo sovente a capo.

Almeno, non quando non serve.

  1. Non usare mai il plurale majestatis. Siamo convinti che faccia una pessima impressione.
  2. Non confondere la causa con l’effetto: saresti in errore e dunque avresti sbagliato.
  3. Non costruire frasi in cui la conclusione non segua logicamente dalle premesse: se tutti facessero così, allora le premesse conseguirebbero dalle conclusioni.
  4. Non indulgere ad arcaismi, hapax legomena o altri lessemi inusitati, nonché deep structures rizomatiche che, per quanto ti appaiano come altrettante epifanie della differenza grammatologica e inviti alla deriva decostruttiva – ma peggio ancora sarebbe se risultassero eccepibili allo scrutinio di chi legga con acribia ecdotica – eccedano comunque le competenze cognitive del destinatario.
  5. Non devi essere prolisso, ma neppure devi dire meno di quello che.
  6. Una frase compiuta deve avere.

Umberto Eco

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